尊貴十四世達賴喇嘛尊者

2008/10/06 10:22 NPO



◎十四世達賴喇嘛的全名是:至尊文殊妙音王‧賢善智慧‧持教大海‧三界法王‧無平等部‧吉祥賢善。但西藏人民簡稱他為昆敦,意即「諸佛菩薩的總匯」。 十四世達賴喇嘛的全名是:至尊文殊妙音王‧賢善智慧‧持教大海‧三界法王‧無平等部‧吉祥賢善。但西藏人民簡稱他為昆敦,意即「諸佛菩薩的總匯」。

達賴喇嘛於1935年7月6日,生於西藏東北安東省(今青海省)的小村莊——他克瑟,俗名拉木頓珠。十三世達賴喇嘛於1933年圓寂後,攝政王瑞廷仁波切到聖湖拉姆拉錯湖,觀看湖中顯出的幻境--清楚看到水裡現出三個藏文字母「An、Ka、Ma」。接著出現一座三層樓高的大寺院,有綠藍色及金色的廟頂,寺院東面有一棟房子,房前是一座小山,屋頂邊緣的綠松石色瓦片十分醒目。後來,攝政王又夢見這棟屋頂有奇形怪狀導水槽,院子當中站著一個小男孩。攝政王相信An字母暗示「安多」(Amdo),就在拉薩東北方,所以靈童尋訪團就出發了。

尋訪團抵古木寺時(拉薩至此,要三個月旅程),他們直覺相信走對路了。如果An字母暗喻安多,Ka勢必就是古木(Kumbum)寺,而它的確是三層樓,且有綠藍色屋頂,尋訪團只須找出那座山及有特殊導水槽的房子,所以一行人開始巡訪附近村落。當他們看見拉木頓珠家的屋頂上結瘤的杜松木幹時,即確定十四世達賴喇嘛就在附近。

儘管尋訪團心中已有定數,但是他們仍隱秘行事,並且再三確認。有次他們帶著許多十三世達賴喇嘛的個人物品,混雜了一些他沒用過的相似物品,向一歲多的拉木頓珠試驗,而這小男孩總能無誤地認出,並說:「這是我的!這是我的!」

當時的拉木頓珠正在牙牙學語階段,只會幾句西寧話,但是當他和尋訪團成員對談時,竟然用流利拉薩方言回答。尋訪團問他來自何處?哪一所僧院?他回答:「哲蚌寺的果芒札倉。」尋訪團大喜望外,確定十四世達賴喇嘛找到了!

1940年冬季,舉行坐床大典,拉木頓珠嗣位為達賴喇嘛,成為西藏人的精神領袖,不久便剃度為沙彌。依照傳統而言,他就是觀世音菩薩的化身。菩薩,實義為「正覺的勇者」,是一位將要證得正覺(菩提)的勇者,他選擇留在娑婆世界以繼續利生的事業,而不是為求自己的解脫。觀世音菩薩化現為西藏的達賴喇嘛,為眾生而奉獻自己。

當他六歲時,在拉薩的布達拉宮和夏宮接受教育。他的學習課程涵蓋五個主要及次要學門。主要課程包括:因明學(邏輯)、西藏藝術與文化、梵文、醫學、以及佛學。佛學最重要,也最難,所學的是五部大論:現觀莊嚴論、律經、俱舍論、入中論、釋量論。主要課程被稱為「五明」,而次要學門被稱為「小五明」,分別是:修辭學、詞藻學、韻律學、戲劇學、星相學。

達賴喇嘛與生俱來的聰慧,學習快速。他在二十五歲時獲得第一等格西學位,這相當於「佛學博士」的學位,這學位的取得必須先通過西藏三大佛寺:哲蚌、色拉和甘丹寺的初試,然後於正月,在拉薩大昭寺例行的祈福法會中通過最後的考試才能取得。考試的流程是這樣的:早上先由三十位學者考問因明學(邏輯),下午的時候和十五位學者辯論中觀,到晚上還要通過三十五位學者考問五部大論,達賴喇嘛以優異的成績通過這場在二萬出家僧眾面前所舉行的考試。

達賴喇嘛平時在每一個公開的場合中,總是盡力讓自己顯得很平凡。比如說,面對照相機時,他也許騎在健身腳踏車上,或者頭戴棒球帽,甚至讓他刷牙的照片公諸於世。他會從後面重拍你的背並把手臂繞在你的肩膀上,或在高僧會議上公然地打呵欠。他時常跟舉世頂尖的科學家、思想家、宗教領袖和政治家座談,並把話說到他們的心坎裡去;他對福音書開示的深度和甜美,使倫敦的基督徒感動得流下淚來;義大利某大城的市長因見到達賴喇嘛而當場歡喜大叫;愛嘲諷的記者,因他的坦率而折服,變得輕鬆了;而物理學家和神經科學家也為他的聰明才智所振奮,對他留下深刻印象。

達賴喇嘛認為悲心就是身體力行,不論是那個層次:政治、宗教、社會或是個人,絕不遲疑!在街上遇到一個喝醉的人,步履踉蹌的走過他的身邊,他會對他合掌彎腰;在漫長的正式演講會中,他會不顧演講地與坐在前排的小孩眼神交會;也會設法走向長廊的另一端加持坐在輪椅上的婦人。

儘管他一直都是世人注目的焦點,為數百萬的人所尊敬,達賴喇嘛還是很歡喜的過他簡單的比丘生活。他每天早上四點起床,然後開始一個半鐘頭的禪修和祈請文。坐在他的禪座上,雙手擺在大腿上,拇指相觸,開始發威猛的誓願,願他每一個身語意的行為皆能利益他人。他說:「藉此方式,能讓你的一整天過得都很有意義。」早課結束後,他向佛陀頂禮,然後開始有意義的一天。

1989年尊者獲得諾貝爾和平獎,主要是因為他不斷地宣揚以「包容與互相尊重」的和平方法,關懷地球上有情的眾生,致力維護歷史文化財產。

在他多次出國訪問時,都強調慈心、悲心、善良心,及對世界大同的責任和世界不同宗教信仰間互相了解的重要性,不管尊者是以佛教僧人、人權的奮鬥者、非暴力主張者或不休止的世界和平發言人等不同身份與角色而言,慈悲以及親切的關懷,一向都是達賴喇嘛尊者生活和工作的特色。

眾所周知,達賴喇嘛是觀世音菩薩的化身,而他的行誼,正是菩薩行。他說:「只要有慈悲心,每個人都可以是觀世音菩薩。」一如他在諾貝爾和平獎頒獎典禮的這番話:「只要宇宙長存,只要生命延續,願本人能等待至那時,驅散世上的不幸!」


Mind Games: The Dalai Lama Takes Harvard

The Dalai Lama addresses an audience on the campus of Harvard University.
The Dalai Lama addresses an audience on the campus of Harvard University.
Steven Senne / AP
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The Dalai Lama is a lot more playful than your average Harvard professor, which is one reason his appearance at a Harvard psychology conference on Friday was so entertaining. The Dalai Lama — who at 73 has an agile, mischievous mind and an abiding interest in psychology — accepted Harvard's invitation because he wanted a lively debate about the latest science on mental health. He wanted to play. What he got was an audience of earnest academic worshippers. He played anyway.

The occasion was Harvard's fourth annual conference on the massive changes that meditation and mindfulness techniques are bringing to everyday psychology. Whereas many psychologists in the postwar era tried to "correct" negative thinking by asking patients didactic questions ("You say you can't do anything right at work — is that really true, or are you being too extreme?"), the latest wave of therapy is all about watching your negative thoughts flow through you instead of trying to fix them. Mindfulness means disentangling yourself from your thoughts, which is what monks like the Dalai Lama have been doing for centuries. (See TIME's photos: "The Dalai Lama: Six Decades of Spiritual Leadership")

The Dalai Lama is just as interested in shrinks and academics as they are in him. In 2005, he met in Sweden with Dr. Aaron "Tim" Beck of the University of Pennsylvania, the inventor of cognitive therapy and, at 87, one of the most influential psychologists in the world. He's also met several times with neuroscientists specializing in research on brain mechanisms associated with various kinds of meditation.

The latest such research shows that daily meditation can improve mental and physical health, but at Harvard the Dalai Lama wasn't convinced by some of the comically deferential — and facile — extrapolations made from there. When one Harvard psychologist suggested that Western cultures defy the biological imperative to connect with others an make it more challenging to be compassionate, the Dalai Lama paused for 20 seconds before answering. "Firstly," he said, "some people make a distinction between West and East. And there are some lifestyle differences ... but in the mental area, I don't think there are differences ... At the mental level, I don't think there's any sort of demarcation between East and West."

Other researchers also seemed to puzzle the Dalai Lama. Conference organizer Christopher Germer, author of the forthcoming book The Mindful Path to Self-Compassion: Freeing Yourself From Destructive Thoughts and Emotions, asked His Holiness whether he would "lead us in a brief meditation that the therapists in this room could practice at home to cultivate compassion for themselves as well as for their patients." The Dalai Lama shot him a skeptical look that got everyone laughing. He was sweet about it, but meditation isn't a "brief" trick.

The Dalai Lama seemed at every turn to want to soften the hard intellectual mood — to have a flickering back-and-forth with the other panelists. He took his shoes off at one point and carefully folded his legs underneath him — first the left, then the right. He loudly blew his nose into a tissue at one point, and he laughed a lot with those great sparkly eyes.

Finally, one of the panelists responded to his body language. Marsha Linehan, one of the world's leading psychologists, invented Dialectical Behavior Therapy, a highly effective, widely replicated treatment for suicidal and self-harming patients that includes mindfulness. Before Linehan spoke, the Dalai Lama had asked a playful question: "What, exactly, is psychology?" No other panelist answered him, but Linehan addressed the question as soon as she spoke. She called psychology "the science of behavior, including the behavior of the mind."

And for the first time, the Dalai Lama seemed truly delighted, since here was something, and someone, to engage. "You mean psychology is not just the mind itself?"

"No," Linehan answered. "It is the study of the mind. You study it also, of course."

Playful as always, he looked at Linehan approvingly and said, "Now, your answer, instead of solving the problem, creates more confusion ... I feel I am still in kindergarten." And with that, he laughed like a little kid, and finally, so did everyone else.

See TIME's photos of the Dalai Lama at home

See TIME's photos of a new Tibet

Dalai Lama to Stay Quiet on Tibet's Future

Dalai Lama Q&A
The Dalai Lama gives public talks at Nottingham Arena in England on May 25,2008
CARL DE SOUZA / AFP / Getty Images
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After a stunning Oct. 25 announcement in India that he had "given up," the Dalai Lama reiterated during a visit to Japan this weekend that he is losing faith in talks with the Chinese government over Tibet's future. Having served the Tibetan people for 68 years as their spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama said that the situation for Tibetans is deteriorating and that Chinese rule in Tibet is "almost like a death sentence." The leader has declared a position of complete neutrality, intending to stay silent on how the Tibetan people should engage with the Chinese government in upcoming talks in Dharamsala and New Delhi.

The Dalai Lama's latest comments come as his representatives, having left for Beijing on Oct. 29, are expected to visit with Chinese officials in the latest dialogue between the Tibetan government-in-exile and Beijing since July. The Dalai Lama did not say when the talks would begin. During a weeklong visit to Japan — his first overseas trip since undergoing surgery to remove gallstones in early October — the Dalai Lama is scheduled to meet with Buddhist monks and speak on spirituality. He will not, however, meet with politicians, as the Japanese government is careful to avoid criticism from China by meeting with the leader, whom Beijing accuses of fomenting riots in China and anti-China demonstrations.

The Dalai Lama's government-in-exile, based in Dharamsala, India, has been engaged in talks with China since 2002. He has sought autonomy for Tibet — a status described as a middle ground between Tibet's current place under the People's Republic of China and full independence. He now, however, views this "middle way" approach as having failed to produce "positive results," and he is therefore changing his course of action — by stepping back. "My trust in the Chinese government has become thinner, thinner, thinner," the Dalai Lama said to reporters on Monday, reiterating statements he has made over the past week that his faith in Beijing is waning. "I cannot take direct responsibility dealing with the Chinese government," he said. "If I say, 'I think this is better or that is better,' then people may not express freely," he said on Sunday. "Now it's up to the people."

Stepping aside on the political front would allow a younger generation of Tibetans, in whom the Dalai Lama has stated he has confidence, to carry the torch of responsibility for what happens next. The Dalai Lama has said that he wants Tibet to enjoy the prosperity of China while maintaining Tibetan language and culture. Buddhist monks also want more religious freedom, and one peaceful protest to that end in Tibet's capital, Lhasa, in March caused the city to fall into chaos and violence. There is increasing division among Tibetan monks over what should be done. Some even advocate the use of violence to achieve Tibetan independence — something the Dalai Lama has never done.

This month, however, there will be many opportunities to discuss what the right way forward may be. The Dalai Lama has called for a special weeklong meeting, starting on Nov. 17 and convened by the government-in-exile in Dharamsala, to discuss how to engage the Chinese government. At the end of November, international supporters of the Tibetan cause are expected to meet in New Delhi.

The Dalai Lama said on Sunday that he does not know what will come of the meetings. Now 73, he said he is looking forward to complete retirement. "My retirement is also my human right," he said, laughing during Monday's press conference in Tokyo. "Since 16 years old, I carried this responsibility. There should be a limit." And though his negotiating life may be coming to an end, as far as his being Tibet's spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama says he will remain committed until death.

(See photos from the Dalai Lama's 68 years of spiritual leadership here.)

(See photos of the Dalai Lama at home in India here.)

         

             尊貴十四世達賴喇嘛尊者